Tuesday, 7 January 2014

Childhood amnesia kicks in around age 7

You could travel the world with an infant aged under 3 and it's almost guaranteed that when they get older they won't remember a single boat trip, plane ride or sunset. This is thanks to a phenomenon, known as childhood or infantile amnesia, that means most of us lose all our earliest autobiographical memories. It's a psychological conundrum because when they are 3 or younger, kids are able to discuss autobiographical events from their past. So it's not that memories from before age 3 never existed, it's that they are subsequently forgotten.

Most of the research in this area has involved adults and children reminiscing about their earliest memories. For a new study Patricia Bauer and Marina Larkina have taken a different approach. They recorded mothers talking to their 3-year-olds about six past events, such as zoo visits or first day at pre-school. The researchers then re-established contact with the same families at different points in the future. Some of the children were quizzed again by a researcher when aged 5, others at age 6 or 7, 8 or 9. This way the researchers were able to chart differences in amounts of forgetting through childhood.

Bauer and Larkina uncovered a paradox - at ages 5 to 7, the children remembered over 60 per cent of the events they'd chatted about at age 3. However, their recall for these events was immature in the sense of containing few evaluative comments and few mentions of time and place. In contrast, children aged 8 and 9 recalled fewer than 40 per cent of the events they'd discussed at age 3, but those memories they did recall were more adult-like in their content. Bauer and Larkina said this suggests that adult-like remembering and forgetting develops at around age 7 or soon after. They also speculated that the immature form of recall seen at ages 5 to 7 could actually contribute to the forgetting of autobiographical memories - a process known as "retrieval-induced forgetting".

Another important finding was that the style mothers used when chatting with their 3-year-olds was associated with the level of remembering by those children later on. Specifically, mothers who used more "deflections", such as "Tell me more" and "What happened?" tended to have children who subsequently recalled more details of their earlier memories.

The researchers said their work "provides compelling evidence that accounts of childhood amnesia that focus only on changes in remembering cannot explain the phenomenon. The complementary processes involved in forgetting are also part of the explanation."

_________________________________ ResearchBlogging.org

Bauer PJ and Larkina M (2013). The onset of childhood amnesia in childhood: A prospective investigation of the course and determinants of forgetting of early-life events. Memory (Hove, England) PMID: 24236647

Further reading
Tapping into people's earliest memories
Where did all the memories go?

Post written by Christian Jarrett (@psych_writer) for the BPS Research Digest.


Unknown said...

I would say the use of 'deflections' - "Tell me more" and "What happened?" - ie talk/conversation is important for all learning / recall. Especially so for early years /KS1 teaching.

phd data analysis said...

Great post awesome to read

Anonymous said...

Tell me more!

Anonymous said...


Anonymous said...

" More"? controlled for "coaching" & memory is rehearsed, long and short,etc&what about so called "abuse" and abuse memories

Anonymous said...

What happened?

Anonymous said...

I remember before I was 3. Heck, I remember laying in my crib, getting my diapers changed, etc. When I was 18 mos I figured out how to climb out of the crib. I remember being carried and crawling. What about weirdo's like me? I can't be the only one who remembers their babyhood.

Anonymous said...

Haven't I seen info that people with higher IQs remember more of their early life?

Anonymous said...

You aren't the only one Anonymous. I remember being strapped into my pram and my white coat got twisted up underneath me which was uncomfortable. The more I wriggled the worse it got so I howled and She bent over me and made noises (not that I could understand them) but hadn't a clue what I was crying about. I was always very careful to smooth my baby sons' coats underneath them in their pushchairs.

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