Tuesday, 25 September 2007

Caring for psychotic patients with maximum kindness and minimum medication

Richard Bentall: "It is difficult to decide on the most important psychology experiment that has never been conducted, but the most important one in psychiatry is not hard to identify. Since Haenri Laborit discovered the psychological effects of chlorpromazine in the late 1940s, anti-psychotic medication has been the first-line (and often only) treatment offered to psychotic patients throughout the world. The evidence from clinical trials in favour of this approach appears impressive at first sight, but the drugs have terrible side effects, and their continued use at high doses is associated with a demonstrable reduction in life expectancy (Waddington et al. 1998). Because they are so unpleasant to take, often causing dysphoria and loss of motivation, many patients discontinue them, and this is true of the new atypical anti-psychotics despite their alleged kinder side effect profiles (Lieberman et al. 2005). Although patients who stop their medication in this way have a high probability of relapse, some of the exacerbations of symptoms that are observed are probably a rebound effect caused by the treatment rather than a return of a pre-existing illness – there is evidence that long-term anti-psychotic use leads to a proliferation of dopamine D2 receptors, thereby increasing the sensitivity of the dopamine system and exacerbating the very physiological dysfunction that the drugs are designed to treat. Hence patients who withdraw gradually are less likely to relapse than those who stop their medication suddenly (Moncrieff, 2006).

Bola (2006) recently reported a meta-analysis of clinical trials in which the majority of patients were experiencing their first episode of illness, in which some patients were unmedicated, and in which the follow-up period was at least one year. Amazingly he could identify only six studies that met these criteria and the evidence suggested that unmedicated patients did at least as well and possibly better than medicated patients in the long-term. One of the studies was the controversial Setoria project devised by Leon Mosher (1999), who devised a system of caring for acutely distressed psychotic patients with maximum kindness and minimum medication. No formal psychotherapy was provided, and the patients were looked after by untrained graduates who dealt with their difficulties with acceptance and emotional support. Despite evidence that Setoria patients did as well as first-episode patients treated in conventional psychiatric services, and the fact that Mosher was director of schizophrenia research for the US National Institute of Mental Health, NIMH closed down the project, probably because of pressure from the pharmaceutical industry (Whitaker, 2002).

In Britain, over the last decade, clinical psychologists have pioneered the development of cognitive-behavioural interventions for patients with psychosis, with promising results (Tarrier & Wykes, 2004). However, CBT has always been offered in combination with conventional antipsychotic drugs. Even though Soteria and CBT come from different philosophical roots, close examination of the two approaches reveals many common features, including acceptance and the normalization of symptoms. Psychiatric patients need to know the results of a clinical trial in which a CBT version of Soteria is compared to treatment as usual. Unfortunately, given the corrupting influence of the pharmaceutical industry (Angell, 2004) they are likely to have to wait for a very long time."

--
Professor Richard Bentall is at the University of Wales, Bangor, and is the author of several books on the topic of mental illness, including 'Madness explained; psychosis and human nature'.

9 comments:

  1. Ollie1:19 pm

    I find this really touching, thanks for sharing. The corruption from the pharmaceutical industry is horrifying, though.

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  2. frank2:29 pm

    I tend to agree with this point of view, as well. An interesting "experiment" has been conducted at Milton Hershey apparently. Very strange, indeed. But seems to have potential.

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  3. It's not along the lines of experiment, but rather treatment -- Windhorse provides this sort of care.

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  4. Nice one Bentall.

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  5. Anonymous11:00 am

    Highly selective bibloiography to support the case.

    Considering the rather massive difference between placebo and active therapy as demonstrated by Kaplan-Meier survival curves from studies going back to the 1970's and the wide variety of medicines seen to be of real benefit.....

    It's an interesting perspective but just a tad one-sided - as even a cursory reading of some of the references provided will show....

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  6. "psychological effects of chlorpromazine"
    This is a joke right?

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  7. As someone who has been in psychosis and been on many, many medications and suffered the physical consequences it would be really great if the medical community could practice more kindness and less over-medication. Medication has its place, but currently we use a lot more than what is necessary. And there are lasting repercussions for the individual and society.

    I think the real joke is that so many doctors who take an ethical oath end up doing serious harm to patients and society - in many cases because they get a God complex. It is really rather sad.

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  8. Karen D10:33 am

    I can relate to Rachaels experiences and points and enjoyed the GOD Complex comment as that is how it feels at times with persons who have medical authority. I myself a year 1 undergraduate in Psychlogy, a bipolar sufferer with hypo-manic tendencies, was hospitalised in April this year as I had slipped into a psychosis and hospitalised. The staff showed no emotional consideration for in-patients, at times leaving them on cold hard floors whilst fitting, even stepping over them to get past. One lady who had decided to strangle herself with a pair of tights was treated in a panic stricken way, with the staff member getting irate with the poor old lady...so much so I myself intervened, told the staff member to back off and just sat, calmly stroking the ladies arm and spoke warmly to her until she had regained consciousness..she then went into a state of shock, and due to the staff member refusing to get a blanket to comfort and warm this very fragile old lady, I removed my jumper and wrapped it around her.

    I was forced into hospital under a section 2, forced to take medication which I did not want and was then subjected to the disgraceful way in which this particular facility was run.

    Treating psychotic patients with maximum kindness and minimum medication in my experience is agreeably the way forward. Well done Richard :)

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    Replies
    1. Anonymous8:58 pm

      wow thank you for all this my daughter has just been diagnosed with psychosis after taking a overdose of 32 paracetemol , her second attempt of overdose in 12 months, I am fighting for her not to be put on medication which will damage her health she is 18 and under a lot of stress from her sister who she loves so much but has cut ties as she is with a controlling guy. any advice I am much appreciated please on medication or warning signs to look out for I am out of my mind with worry. thank you

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